Whenever you are researching a certain topic and writing a paper based on the research, you need to create a list of the scholarly articles, books, and other sources you used. This list is known by the name bibliography. It should always be positioned on a new page at the end of the paper, and it should contain properly formatted information about all sources that contributed towards the writing of your paper.


According to some styles, the bibliography is known as Works Consulted or Works Cited.


The entries in the bibliography list are required to be written in a specific format, depending on the particular style of writing you are using for your paper. Most academic papers required from students are written according to the standards of Turabian, APA, or MLA style. Professors have different preferences, so you should pay attention to the requirements about the particular assignment.


The bibliography entry should provide information about the author, the title of the cited work, information about the publication, and date of publication. You should alphabetize the entries according to the author’s last name.


If you are citing two works by the same author, you should consult a guide about the style you are using and find out how to list them in the bibliography. For example, the Turabian and MLA styles of writing require alphabetizing the works according to their titles in such situation. The name of the author should be written as normal for the first entry, but is replaced with three hyphens for the second entry. In comparison, the APA style requires you to take the date of publication into consideration, and list the entries in chronological order. All entries should include the author’s full name.


The hanging indent style is usually required for bibliography entries. This means that you should not indent the first line of a citation, but all subsequent lines should ne indented.


Although writing a bibliography is a tedious task for most students, it is necessary to give credit to all sources used in academic writing; otherwise the work may be considered as plagiarism. All authors whose work has been consulted throughout the process of your research and writing should be properly mentioned throughout the text and in the bibliography page. Besides giving credit to your sources, the bibliography has another purpose – making it easy for an interested reader to continue the reading with the sources you have used and recommend.

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