When it comes to citing works in academic writing, there are three major styles that are most commonly used: the Chicago style (taken from the Chicago Manual of Style), MLA (Modern Language Association) style, and APA (American Psychological Association) style. Different sciences prefer different styles. For example, works from the publishing industry and history niche are written with the implementation of Chicago style; humanities-related areas (like literature) prefer MLA; and social sciences (such as sociology, psychology, and business) prefer the APA style. If you are a student, you should be informed about the particular requirements of your school when it comes to academic writing, and pay attention to your professors’ guidelines about individual assignments. Different professors have different preferences, so the best thing to do when you are in doubt of which style to use is to ask your professor and make sure to write the paper according to their requirements.
About the Chicago Style
The Chicago style allows the usage of two different styles of referencing: the Humanities (or Documentary-Note) Style and the Author-Date System. Academic works in sciences are traditionally written according to the Author-Date System, while social sciences and humanities traditionally use the Documentary-Note Style.
About the Turabian Style
Academics often mention the Turabian style along with the Chicago style. In a straightforward explanation, it is a simplified form of the more complicated Chicago style, which was created to be used mainly by students for their writing assignments. When it comes to publishers, they still use the original Chicago style. The name of this simplified style comes from the last name of its developer, Kate L. Turabian, but the complete title of her handbook is A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. In order to make things even easier for students, they are enabled to access the Turabian quick online guide and see samples of proper citations according to this style.